Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common, but genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant malformation syndrome. Characteristic features are proportionate short stature, dysmorphic face, and congenital heart defects. Only recently, a gene involved in NS could be identified. It encodes the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which is an important molecule in several intracellular signal transduction pathways that control diverse developmental processes, most importantly cardiac semilunar valvulogenesis. We have screened this gene for mutations in 96 familial and sporadic, well-characterised NS patients and identified 15 different missense mutations in a total of 32 patients (33%), including 23 index patients. Most changes clustered in one exon which encodes parts of the N-SH2 domain. Five of the mutations were recurrent. Interestingly, no mutations in the PTPN11 gene were detected in five additional patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, which shows clinical similarities to NS.