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. 2002 Dec 30;114(23-24):963-6.

"Flower Remedies": A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence

  • PMID: 12635462

"Flower Remedies": A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence

Edzard Ernst. Wien Klin Wochenschr. .


Background: Flower remedies (also called "Bach" flower remedies) are used by an increasing number of individuals, and many health claims have been made for them. No systematic review of flower remedies has so far been published.

Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to summarise and critically analyse the data from all available controlled clinical trials of flower remedies.

Methods: Six databases were searched to identify all controlled clinical trials of flower remedies in humans for any medical condition. No language restrictions were applied. Key data were validated and extracted into table format according to pre-defined criteria. Statistical pooling was not possible, and results were evaluated in narrative form.

Results: Four studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two trials suggested a positive outcome. Those studies that controlled for placebo-effects and minimised selection bias through randomisation failed to demonstrate effects beyond a placebo response.

Conclusion: The hypothesis that flower remedies are associated with effects beyond a placebo response is not supported by data from rigorous clinical trials.

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