Magnesium deficiency is known to produce cardiovascular injury. A large body of experimental evidence supports the postulation that an immuno-inflammatory reaction and increased oxidative stress may damage the myocardium and vasculature in magnesium deficiency. Reparative/reactive fibrosis in response to the injury has, however, received little attention. Recent evidence from a rodent model of acute magnesium deficiency suggests that humoral factors may activate cardiac fibroblasts by a free radical-mediated mechanism and contribute to cardiac fibrogenesis. A similar mechanism may also promote cellular hyperplasia and increased matrix synthesis in the vasculature.