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, 278 (20), 18563-72

Serp-1, a Viral Anti-Inflammatory Serpin, Regulates Cellular Serine Proteinase and Serpin Responses to Vascular Injury

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Serp-1, a Viral Anti-Inflammatory Serpin, Regulates Cellular Serine Proteinase and Serpin Responses to Vascular Injury

Erbin Dai et al. J Biol Chem.

Abstract

Complex DNA viruses have tapped into cellular serpin responses that act as key regulatory steps in coagulation and inflammatory cascades. Serp-1 is one such viral serpin that effectively protects virus-infected tissues from host inflammatory responses. When given as purified protein, Serp-1 markedly inhibits vascular monocyte invasion and plaque growth in animal models. We have investigated mechanisms of viral serpin inhibition of vascular inflammatory responses. In vascular injury models, Serp-1 altered early cellular plasminogen activator (tissue plasminogen activator), inhibitor (PAI-1), and receptor (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) expression (p < 0.01). Serp-1, but not a reactive center loop mutant, up-regulated PAI-1 serpin expression in human endothelial cells. Treatment of endothelial cells with antibody to urokinase-type plasminogen activator and vitronectin blocked Serp-1-induced changes. Significantly, Serp-1 blocked intimal hyperplasia (p < 0.0001) after aortic allograft transplant (p < 0.0001) in PAI-1-deficient mice. Serp-1 also blocked plaque growth after aortic isograft transplant and after wire-induced injury (p < 0.05) in PAI-1-deficient mice indicating that increase in PAI-1 expression is not required for Serp-1 to block vasculopathy development. Serp-1 did not inhibit plaque growth in uPAR-deficient mice after aortic allograft transplant. We conclude that the poxviral serpin, Serp-1, attenuates vascular inflammatory responses to injury through a pathway mediated by native uPA receptors and vitronectin.

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