Antioxidant activity was studied for anthocyanins extracted from purple black rice (PBR) by a 3% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid solution (TFA), as well as for anthocyanins extracted from blueberry (Bluetta, high bush type). Capillary zone electrophoresis revealed that the PBR extract contained almost exclusively a single anthocyanin, which was identified as cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (Cy 3-Glc) after purification by polyvinylpyrrolidone column chromatography. In contrast, 11 anthocyanins were identified in the blueberry extract. PBR extract showed slightly weaker superoxide scavenging and crocin bleaching activities than blueberry extract did. Both PBR and blueberry extracts, however, showed 10 to 25 times stronger activity than the same concentration of Trolox used as a reference antioxidant. It was further noted that the purified Cy 3-Glc from PBR extract retained approximately 74% of the antioxidant activity (both crocin bleaching and superoxide scavenging) observed in the original TFA extract. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of both extracts was several times weaker than that of the same concentration of Trolox, although the PBR extract showed approximately two times stronger activity than blueberry extract did. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the purified Cy 3-Glc from PBR, however, decreased to approximately 20% of that of the original PBR extract. These results indicate that the anthocyanin Cy 3-Glc contributes to the antioxidant activity of PBR through its strong superoxide radical but not hydroxyl radical scavenging activity.