The Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex is a group of mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause severe encephalitic disease in humans. The recent emergence of several members of this serocomplex in geographic regions where other closely related flaviviruses are endemic has raised urgent human health issues. Thus, the impact of vaccination against one of these neurotropic virus on the outcome of infection with a second, serologically related virus is unknown. We show here that immunity against Murray Valley encephalitis virus in vaccinated mice can cross-protect but also augment disease severity following challenge with Japanese encephalitis virus. Immunepotentiation of heterologous flavivirus disease was apparent in animals immunized with a 'killed' virus preparation when humoral antiviral immunity of low magnitude was elicited.