A novel member of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family, hPARP-3, is identified here as a core component of the centrosome. hPARP-3 is preferentially localized to the daughter centriole throughout the cell cycle. The N-terminal domain (54 amino acids) of hPARP-3 is responsible for its centrosomal localization. Full-length hPAPR-3 (540 amino acids, with an apparent mass of 67 kDa) synthesizes ADP-ribose polymers during its automodification. Overexpression of hPARP-3 or its N-terminal domain does not influence centrosomal duplication or amplification but interferes with the G1/S cell cycle progression. PARP-1 also resides for part of the cell cycle in the centrosome and interacts with hPARP-3. The presence of both PARP-1 and PARP-3 at the centrosome may link the DNA damage surveillance network to the mitotic fidelity checkpoint.