Structural proteomics is the determination of atomic resolution three-dimensional protein structures on a genome-wide scale in order to better understand the relationship between protein sequence, structure, and function. Here we describe our ongoing structural proteomics project on the nonmembrane proteins of the archeaon, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. This article provides a snapshot of an ongoing pilot project in an emerging area of multidisciplinary research that involves bioinformatics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and instrumental methods such as NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. An assessment of the technical challenges in this type of large-scale project along with a comparison of the efficiency of sample production for both X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy will be discussed. Examples of new insights into protein function and the relationship between structure and sequence will also be presented.