Traditional cardiac risk factors in individuals with chronic kidney disease

Semin Dial. Mar-Apr 2003;16(2):118-27. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-139x.2003.16028.x.


Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increased risk is due to a higher prevalence of both traditional risk factors as well as nontraditional risk factors. In this review we focus on individuals at all stages of CKD and discuss modifiable traditional risk factors, namely hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and poor glycemic control, smoking, and physical inactivity. The prevalence of each risk factor and its relationship with CVD is described. Treatment recommendations are provided using evidence available from populations with CKD or evidence extrapolated from the general population when there are insufficient data on individuals with CKD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality
  • Chronic Disease
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Hyperlipidemias / epidemiology
  • Hyperlipidemias / therapy
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / therapy
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Risk Factors


  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors