Despite some improvements in diabetes treatment processes, outcomes for many patients remain inadequate. Interactive health technologies (IHTs) can address many of the challenges that diabetes patients and their health systems face, and research on IHT applications for diabetes care are intensifying. This article describes recent evidence regarding the feasibility and impact of 1) clinic-based CD-ROM systems supporting behavior change; 2) automated telephone diabetes management allowing for ongoing monitoring and patient education between face-to-face clinical encounters; and 3) Web-based systems focusing on a range of diabetes management goals such as enhanced emotional support for patients and improved clinician adherence to treatment guidelines. Studies in each of these areas have been somewhat encouraging. However, intervention effects have been moderate, and researchers face significant challenges in designing and implementing definitive studies.