Inhibitory effects of luteolin isolated from Ixeris sonchifolia Hance on the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Feb;26(2):151-6. doi: 10.1007/BF02976662.


We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of luteolin and apigenin, isolated from Ixeris sonchifolia Hance, on HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In MTT assay luteolin showed more efficient anti-proliferative effects on cells than apigenin did. According to propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry studies, we postulated that these effects might be a result of cell cyde arrest. Hence we examined the changes of protein expressions related to cell cycle arrest. Western blotting data demonstrated that the down-regulated expression of CDK4 was correlated to the increase of p53 and CDK inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) protein. These data suggest that luteolin may have potential as an anti-cancer agent.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / isolation & purification*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology
  • Apigenin
  • Asteraceae / chemistry*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / biosynthesis
  • Cyclins / biosynthesis
  • Down-Regulation
  • Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
  • Flavonoids / isolation & purification*
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Luteolin
  • Plant Roots / chemistry
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis
  • Up-Regulation


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • CDKN1A protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins
  • Flavonoids
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Apigenin
  • CDK4 protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
  • Luteolin