Correlation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 activity using caffeine phenotyping and olanzapine disposition in healthy volunteers

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 May;28(5):961-6. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300123. Epub 2003 Mar 19.


Olanzapine has previously been shown to have predominant metabolism by cytochrome (CYP) P450 1A2. Caffeine has been shown to provide an accurate phenotypic probe for measuring CYP1A2 activity. The purpose of this study is to determine if a significant correlation exists between olanzapine disposition and caffeine metabolic ratios. Subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2 activity with caffeine probe methodology. After 200-mg caffeine administration, blood (4 h), saliva (6 and 10 h), and urine (8 h total) were collected for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of caffeine and its metabolites.CYP1A2 activity was measured as plasma (PMR(4 h)), saliva (SMR(6 h) and SMR(10 h)), and three urinary metabolic (UMR1(8 h), UMR2(8 h), and UMR3(8 h)) ratios. Each of the 14 healthy nonsmokers (13 male) received a single 10 mg olanzapine dose after which blood was collected for HPLC determination of olanzapine concentrations at predose and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h postdose. Olanzapine pharmacokinetic parameters in this study were similar to those previously published. All caffeine metabolic ratios (PMR(4 h), SMR(6 h), SMR(10 h), UMR1(8 h), and UMR2(8 h)) significantly correlated with each other (p <0.001) except for UMR3(8 h), which did not correlate. A significant correlation (p <0.05) was also found between olanzapine clearance and PMR(4 h) (r=0.701), SMR(6 h) (r=0.644), SMR(10 h) (r=0.701), UMR1(8 h) (r=0.745), and UMR2(8 h) (r=0.710). A negative correlation was observed between olanzapine clearance and UMR3(8 h) (r=-0.029, p=NS). A significant correlation was found between olanzapine clearance and various caffeine metabolic ratios. Interpatient variability in CYP1A2 activity may explain the wide interpatient variability in olanzapine disposition. Compounds that modulate CYP1A2 activity may be expected to alter olanzapine pharmacokinetics accordingly.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Caffeine / metabolism*
  • Caffeine / pharmacology
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate / drug effects
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate / physiology
  • Olanzapine
  • Phenotype*
  • Pirenzepine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Pirenzepine / metabolism*
  • Pirenzepine / pharmacokinetics


  • Benzodiazepines
  • Pirenzepine
  • Caffeine
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
  • Olanzapine