We reported previously the amplification of DNA markers in 17p12 in 3 of 60 high-grade gliomas. To detect additional cases, we screened in total 104 gliomas of various types and grades by Southern blot analysis using marker 745R, which is within the commonly amplified region. However, no other caseswith significant amplification (amplification level > 4) were found. To investigate in detail the extent of the amplifications in the three tumors, which were all glioblastomas, we determined 17p11.2 approximately p12 amplification profiles by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction using 15 microsatellite markers and seven candidate genes. Distinct and high-level amplifications, with maximum levels ranging from 15 to 38, were found in these tumors. The 0.8 Mb-region between D17S1525 and MAP2K4 in 17p12 proved to be commonly amplified in these tumors. In one tumor, a heterogeneous distribution of the amplification in 17p12 was found, suggesting that it is a late event during glioma tumorigenesis. Another tumor showed additional high-level amplification of PMP22 and D17S1843 in 17p11.2. From the high-level amplifications we conclude that at least one, but possibly more, putative oncogenes are present in 17p11.2 approximately p12 whose amplifications and/or overexpressions contribute to glioma tumorigenesis.