The objective of this study was to develop a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect MDR1 (human multidrug resistance gene) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C3435T and G2677T. C3435T and G2677T are linked to MDR1*2, which is associated with enhanced efflux activity in vitro. Using the Smart Cycler, an allele-specific real-time PCR-based genotyping method was developed to detect C3435T and G2677T. The MDR1 genotype of human genomic DNA templates was determined by direct DNA sequencing. PCR reactions for genotyping C3435T and G2677T by using allele-specific primers were conducted in separate tubes. An additional nucleotide mismatch at the third position from the 3' end of each allele-specific primer was used to abrogate nonspecific PCR amplification. The fluorescence emitted by SYBR Green I was monitored to detect formation of specific PCR products. PCR growth curves exceeding the threshold cycle were considered positive. Fluorescence melt-curve analysis was used to corroborate results from PCR growth curves. Using PCR growth curves, our assay accurately determined hetero- and homozygosity for C3435T and G2677T. Genotype assignments based on PCR growth curve, melt-curve analysis, agarose gel electrophoresis, and direct DNA sequencing results of PCR products were in perfect agreement. We have developed a rapid MDR1 genotyping method that can be used to assess the contribution of MDR1*2 to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability of P-glycoprotein substrates.