Molecular links between X-inactivation and autosomal imprinting: X-inactivation as a driving force for the evolution of imprinting?

Curr Biol. 2003 Mar 18;13(6):R242-54. doi: 10.1016/s0960-9822(03)00162-3.


In classical Mendelian inheritance, each parent donates a set of chromosomes to its offspring so that maternally and paternally encoded information is expressed equally. The phenomena of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) and autosomal imprinting in mammals violate this dogma of genetic equality. In XCI, one of the two female X chromosomes is silenced to equalize X-linked gene dosage between XX and XY individuals. In genomic imprinting, parental marks determine which of the embryo's two autosomal alleles will be expressed. Although XCI and imprinting appear distinct, molecular evidence now shows that they share a surprising number of features. Among them are cis-acting control centers, long-distance regulation and differential DNA methylation. Perhaps one of the most intriguing similarities between XCI and imprinting has been their association with noncoding and antisense RNAs. Very recent data also suggest the common involvement of histone modifications and chromatin-associated factors such as CTCF. Collectively, the evidence suggests that XCI and genomic imprinting may have a common origin. Here, I hypothesize that the need for X-linked dosage compensation was a major driving force in the evolution of genomic imprinting in mammals. I propose that imprinting was first fixed on the X chromosome for XCI and subsequently acquired by autosomes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution*
  • DNA Methylation
  • Dosage Compensation, Genetic*
  • Genomic Imprinting*
  • Models, Genetic*
  • RNA, Antisense / genetics
  • X Chromosome / genetics*


  • RNA, Antisense