Mutations in the aberrant X segragation (Axs) gene disrupt the segregation of achiasmate chromosomes during female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that Axs encodes the founding member of an eukaryotic family of transmembrane proteins. Axs protein colocalizes with components of the endoplasmic reticulum and is present within a structure ensheathing the meiotic spindle. In both meiotic and mitotic cells, Axs is recruited to the microtubules of assembling spindles. We propose that Axs and the sheath represent novel mediators of meiotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation.