Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease, and some patients have been found to have SS complicated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in which IgG is known to carry abnormal N-linked oligosaccharides. In order to investigate the relationship between SS and RA, the structures of N-linked oligosaccharides of IgG from 12 primary SS patients without RA, 9 RA patients, and 8 healthy individuals were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, in combination with sequential exoglycosidase treatment and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. All of the IgG samples obtained from primary SS patients, RA patients, and healthy individuals contained the same series of biantennary complex-type oligosaccharides, but the ratio of each oligosaccharide differed among these 3 groups. The incidence of galactose-lacking N-linked oligosaccharides obtained from the IgG of RA patients was significantly higher than that from healthy individuals, but that from the serum IgG of primary SS patients varied among individuals. The patients with primary SS were classified into two groups based on the galactosylation levels of IgG oligosaccharides; one group exhibits galactosylation levels as low as those of RA patients and another exhibits levels similar to those of healthy individuals. Measurement of levels of rheumatoid factor (RF) revealed that primary SS patients with a high incidence of RF belonged to the low galactosylation group, as did RA patients. These results suggest that appearance of IgG carrying abnormal N-linked oligosaccharides in primary SS may be related to future complication with RA.