Purpose: The authors present a case of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) associated with a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with mixed features of Wegener granulomatosis and polyarteritis nodosa (PAN).
Methods: Case report.
Results: A 29-year-old woman developed a severe nosebleed, followed by a low-grade fever, night sweats, and a productive cough. One month later, she began experiencing high fevers, headache, myalgia, neck stiffness, and abdominal pain as well as bilateral blurred vision from APMPPE. Systemic evaluation revealed nasal ulcerations, bilateral pleural effusions, and a bilateral maxillary and ethmoid sinusitis, consistent with Wegener granulomatosis. However, ANCA testing was negative, and a renal and mesenteric angiogram showed aneurysmal dilatations suggestive of PAN. Her ocular and systemic symptoms markedly improved with systemic corticosteroids.
Conclusions: The cause of APMPPE is unknown. This case of APMPPE associated with systemic necrotizing vasculitis provides support for the choroid as being primarily involved by a diffuse vasculitic process that interrupts choroidal perfusion and causes the characteristic fundus findings in APMPPE.