Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells acquire peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) clusters through T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated endocytosis after specific antigen stimulation. We generated an antigen-presenting cell (APC) expressing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*201 coupled to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), which delivered GFP to an antigen-specific T cell when pulsed with antigenic peptide. We quantitatively identified human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax(11-19) peptide-specific T-cell populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease and defined a new CD8+ T-cell epitope in the HTLV-I envelope region. Acquisition of peptide-HLA-GFP complexes by antigen-specific T cells could distinguish, with respect to phenotype and perforin production, T cells from the chronic viral infections cytomegalovirus and HTLV-I. This approach will be a powerful tool in understanding the role of antigen-specific T-cell responses in health and disease.