Parecoxib sodium, a parenteral cyclooxygenase 2 selective inhibitor, improves morphine analgesia and is opioid-sparing following total hip arthroplasty

Anesthesiology. 2003 Apr;98(4):950-6. doi: 10.1097/00000542-200304000-00023.


Background: This study examined the opioid-sparing effectiveness, analgesic efficacy, and tolerability of postoperative administration of the parenteral cyclooxygenase 2 selective inhibitor, parecoxib sodium, in total hip arthroplasty patients.

Methods: This was a multicenter, multiple-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to compare the opioid-sparing effects, analgesic efficacy, and tolerability of postoperative 20 and 40 mg intravenous parecoxib sodium with placebo in hip arthroplasty patients. The first dose of study medication was administered after surgery with an intravenous bolus dose of 4 mg morphine when patients first requested pain medication; remedication with the study medication occurred at 12 and 24 h. Subsequent morphine doses (1-2 mg) were administered by patient-controlled analgesia. Efficacy was assessed by total morphine used, pain relief and pain intensity, time to last dose of morphine, and Global Evaluation rating of the study medication.

Results: Parecoxib sodium, 20 and 40 mg, reduced the total amount of morphine required over 36 h by 22.1% (56.5 mg morphine) and 40.5% (43.1 mg morphine), respectively, compared with placebo (72.5 mg morphine; P < 0.01). Patients receiving 20 and 40 mg parecoxib sodium experienced significantly greater maximum pain relief compared with those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Patients who received 20 and 40 mg parecoxib sodium discontinued PCA morphine earlier than patients receiving placebo and had significantly higher Global Evaluation ratings. Parecoxib sodium, 40 mg, plus morphine demonstrated a significantly lower incidence of fever and vomiting compared with placebo plus morphine.

Conclusions: Administration of parecoxib sodium with PCA morphine resulted in significantly improved postoperative analgesic management as defined by reduction in opioid requirement, lower pain scores, reduced time on PCA morphine, and higher Global Evaluation ratings.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Analgesia, Patient-Controlled
  • Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use*
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip*
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism*
  • Isoxazoles / administration & dosage
  • Isoxazoles / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Middle Aged
  • Morphine / administration & dosage
  • Morphine / therapeutic use*
  • Pain Measurement / drug effects
  • Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy*
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism*


  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Isoenzymes
  • Isoxazoles
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Morphine
  • parecoxib
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • PTGS2 protein, human
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases