In the first preventative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine study to be carried out in Africa, 40 HIV-seronegative Ugandan volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a canarypox vector containing HIV-1 clade B (env and gag-pro) antigens (ALVAC-HIV; n = 20), control vector containing the rabies virus glycoprotein G gene (n = 10), or saline placebo (n = 10). Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against target cells expressing clade A, B, and D antigens was assessed using standard chromium-release and confirmatory interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. Neutralizing antibody responses to cell line-adapted strains and primary isolates in all 3 clades were also tested. Twenty percent of vaccine recipients generated detectable cytolytic responses to either Gag or Env, and 45% had vaccine-induced HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, as measured by the ELISPOT assay. In contrast, only 5% of the control group had vaccine-specific responses. Neutralizing antibodies against primary and laboratory-adapted HIV-1 clade B strains were seen in 10% and 15% of vaccine recipients, respectively, but responses against clades A and D were not detected. Although the immunogenicity of this clade B-based vaccine was low, ALVAC-HIV elicited CD8(+) T cell responses with detectable cross-activity against clade A and D antigens in a significant proportion of vaccine recipients.