Some numerical aspects of the training problem for feed-forward neural nets

Neural Netw. 1997 Nov;10(8):1455-1463. doi: 10.1016/s0893-6080(97)00015-4.


This paper considers the feed-forward training problem from the numerical point of view, in particular the conditioning of the problem. It is well known that the feed-forward training problem is often ill-conditioned; this affects the behaviour of training algorithms, the choice of such algorithms and the quality of the solutions achieved. A geometric interpretation of ill-conditioning is explored and an example of function approximation is analysed in detail.