Oxidative stress contributes to the cascade leading to dopamine cell degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, oxidative stress is intimately linked to other components of the degenerative process, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, nitric oxide toxicity and inflammation. It is therefore difficult to determine whether oxidative stress leads to, or is a consequence of, these events. Oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA occurs in PD, and toxic products of oxidative damage, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), can react with proteins to impair cell viability. There is convincing evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide that reacts with superoxide to produce peroxynitrite and ultimately hydroxyl radical production. Recently, altered ubiquitination and degradation of proteins have been implicated as key to dopaminergic cell death in PD. Oxidative stress can impair these processes directly, and products of oxidative damage, such as HNE, can damage the 26S proteasome. Furthermore, impairment of proteasomal function leads to free radical generation and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs in idiopathic PD and products of oxidative damage interfere with cellular function, but these form only part of a cascade, and it is not possible to separate them from other events involved in dopaminergic cell death.