Information theory-based analysis of CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 splicing mutations

Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Apr;13(4):207-18. doi: 10.1097/00008571-200304000-00005.


Several mutations are known or suspected to affect mRNA splicing of CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes; however, little experimental evidence exists to support these conclusions. The present study applies mathematical models that measure changes in information content of splice sites in these genes to demonstrate the relationship between the predicted phenotypes of these variants to the corresponding genotypes. Based on information analysis, the CYP2C19*2 variant activates a new cryptic site 40 nucleotides downstream of the natural splice site. CYP2C19*7 abolishes splicing at the exon 5 donor site. The CYP2D6*4 allele similarly inactivates splicing at the acceptor site of exon 4 and activates a new cryptic site one nucleotide downstream of the natural acceptor. CYP2D6*11 inactivates the acceptor site of exon 2. The CYP3A5*3 allele activates a new cryptic site 236 nucleotides upstream of the exon 4 natural acceptor site. CYP3A5*5 inactivates the exon 5 donor site and CYP3A5*6 strengthens a site upstream of the natural donor site, resulting in skipping of exon 7. Other previously described missense and nonsense mutations at terminal codons of exons in these genes affected splicing. CYP2D6*8 and CYP2D6*14 both decrease the strength of the exon 3 donor site, producing transcripts lacking this exon. The results of information analysis are consistent with the poor metabolizer phenotypes observed in patients with these mutations, and illustrate the potential value of these mathematical models to quantitatively evaluate the functional consequences of new mutations suspected of altering mRNA splicing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics*
  • Databases, Protein
  • Exons
  • Genetic Variation
  • Introns
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Mutation, Missense
  • RNA Interference*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • CYP3A protein, human
  • CYP3A5 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A