Interferon (IFN)-gamma is an important immune regulator in normal immunity. When IFN gamma production is disturbed, various autoimmune diseases (ADs) can develop, in which we suggest that anti-IFN gamma could have a beneficial effect. Depending on the cell type in which IFN gamma synthesis is disturbed, different clinical manifestations may result. We have also proposed to remove tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, together with certain types of IFNs, to treat various ADs and AIDS, also an autoimmune condition. Anti-IFN gamma has been tested in several T-helper cell (Th1) ADs, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), corneal transplant rejection, uveitis, Type I diabetes, schizophrenia (anti-IFN gamma and anti-TNF alpha), and various autoimmune skin diseases (alopecia areata, psoriasis vulgaris, vitiligo, pemphigus vulgaris and epidermolysis bullosa). A strong, sometimes striking, therapeutic response followed administration of anti-IFN gamma, indicating that it may be a promising therapy for Th1 ADs.