Analysis of the grass Zingeria trichopoda (2n = 8, 2C = 5.3 pg) revealed a dynamic evolution with the following characteristics. (i) Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) demonstrates that Z. trichopoda evolved from an interspecific hybrid involving a species like contemporary Zingeria biebersteiniana (2n = 4) and a second species with a similar low number of chromosomes. The nucleus of Z. trichopoda is spatially organized at the genome level and the two parental genomes occupy distinct and separate domains of lateral arrangements. (ii) The copy number of the Z. biebersteiniana specific pericentromeric tandem repeat family Zbcen1 is drastically reduced in Z. trichopoda. (iii) GISH in combination with labeled rDNA sequences simultaneously discriminated the two parental genomes and the corresponding 5S and 45S rDNA sites. Hence, following allopolyploidization of Z. trichopoda the Z. biebersteiniana like parental chromosomes probably underwent drastic loss of 45S rDNA. This could have arisen either through the loss of Z. biebersteiniana derived 45S rDNA or through Z. trichopoda genome-wide homogenization of Z. biebersteiniana type 45S rDNA and subsequent elimination of 45S rDNA loci from Z. biebersteiniana derived chromosomes. Finally, 5S rDNA loci are present in both subgenomes of Z. trichopoda and the chromosomal position of these loci is similar for both Z. biebersteiniana and the Z. biebersteiniana like parental genome of Z. trichopoda.