Isoform/variant mRNAs for sex steroid hormone receptors in humans

Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;14(3):124-9. doi: 10.1016/s1043-2760(03)00028-6.


The open reading frames of human sex steroid hormone receptors (hSSHRs) are composed of eight exons. In addition, the presence of various exons - including 5'-untranslated exons, alternative coding exons and novel 'intronic' exons - has been demonstrated in the genes encoding hSSHRs. The isoform/variant hSSHR mRNAs generated from thes e exons can be tentatively classified into seven types. In type 1, different mRNAs are generated with the use of alternative transcription start sites. In type 2, one or more exons are skipped. In type 3, one or more exons are duplicated. In type 4, distinct mRNAs containing different 5'-untranslated exon(s) are synthesized. In type 5, distinct mRNAs possessing different coding exon(s) are generated. In type 6, mRNA is synthesized by intronic exons and coding exons 4/5-8. In type 7, mRNA with insertion of intronic exon(s) is generated. Here, we review the isoform/variant hSSHR mRNAs and the structure of the genes encoding them.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alternative Splicing*
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • Exons / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Open Reading Frames / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics*
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics*
  • Receptors, Androgen / metabolism
  • Receptors, Estrogen / genetics*
  • Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • Receptors, Progesterone / genetics*
  • Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism


  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • Protein Isoforms
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Receptors, Progesterone