The pathobiological mechanisms of emphysema models: what do they have in common?

Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2003;16(2):67-78. doi: 10.1016/S1094-5539(02)00099-8.


Emphysema results from a multi-step, complex, process of lung destruction. This review aims at organizing the available information concerning the animal models of emphysema as to which step of the pathogenesis they address. The experimental models have been classified as to whether they are based on: (a) pharmacological, (b) environmental, or (c) genetic manipulations to induce emphysema and whether they are: (a) triggers or initiators of emphysema, (b) modifiers of lung predisposition to further damage by trigger factors, or (c) mediators of lung tissue destruction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Endopeptidases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / etiology
  • Pulmonary Emphysema* / etiology
  • Pulmonary Emphysema* / genetics
  • Pulmonary Emphysema* / pathology
  • Smoking / adverse effects*


  • Endopeptidases