The risk of endometrial cancer is positively associated with obesity, but the role of specific nutrients remains unclear. Given the distinct characteristics of the Greek diet and the low incidence of this form of cancer among Greek women, we undertook a case-control study to investigate the association of endometrial cancer with food groups and micronutrients. Cases were 84 women with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and controls were 84 women with intact uterus admitted to the same teaching hospital in Athens, Greece. Consumption of pulses, nuts, and seeds was significantly inversely related to the risk for endometrial cancer. No other significant association with food groups was detected, although a protective effect of added lipids, which in the Greek diet are primarily represented by olive oil, was highly suggestive. Retinol, nicotinic acid, vitamin B- 6, and riboflavin were inversely associated with the disease. These findings need to be replicated, because this was a relatively small study with the statistical power to detect only strong associations between cases and controls; they appear, however, to support a role of diet in the etiology of endometrial cancer.