Sedolisins (serine-carboxyl peptidases) are proteolytic enzymes whose fold resembles that of subtilisin; however, they are considerably larger, with the mature catalytic domains containing approximately 375 amino acids. The defining features of these enzymes are a unique catalytic triad, Ser-Glu-Asp, as well as the presence of an aspartic acid residue in the oxyanion hole. High-resolution crystal structures have now been solved for sedolisin from Pseudomonas sp. 101, as well as for kumamolisin from a thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus novo sp. MN-32. The availability of these crystal structures enabled us to model the structure of mammalian CLN2, an enzyme which, when mutated in humans, leads to a fatal neurodegenerative disease. This review compares the structural and enzymatic properties of this newly defined MEROPS family of peptidases, S53, and introduces their new nomenclature.