Farnesyl transferase inhibitor SCH66336 is cytostatic, pro-apoptotic and enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in melanoma cells

Int J Cancer. 2003 Jun 10;105(2):165-75. doi: 10.1002/ijc.11064.

Abstract

The constitutive activity of a number of growth and cell survival pathways are thought to contribute to the inherent resistance of melanoma to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Many of these pathways are driven through the small GTPase Ras. Novel drugs such as the farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs) and farnesyl thiosalicylic acid (FTS) interfere with the signaling of oncogenic Ras. The aim of our study was to assess the anti-tumour activity of the FTI SCH66336 in melanoma and to assess whether SCH66336 and FTS could modulate chemoresistance in melanoma cells. SCH66336 had marked anti-proliferative activity in both human and mouse melanoma cell lines, but not in non-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. The anti-proliferative activity of SCH66336 was due to G1-phase cell cycle arrest and retinoblastoma protein inactivation, followed by apoptosis. Cisplatin, when administered alone, induced little apoptosis. In combination with cisplatin, both FTS and SCH66336 markedly enhanced the level of cisplatin-induced apoptosis, an effect that was associated with enhanced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Pharmacological inhibitors of either ERK or PI-3 kinase/Akt did not mimic the chemosensitising activity of either SCH66336 or FTS. In summary, our study demonstrates that SCH66336 has good in vitro anti-tumour activity in both human and mouse melanoma cell lines, and suggests that Ras antagonists could be useful in overcoming chemoresistance to cisplatin in melanoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Actins / metabolism
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Cisplatin / pharmacology*
  • Colony-Forming Units Assay
  • Drug Synergism
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Farnesol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Farnesol / pharmacology
  • Farnesyltranstransferase
  • Humans
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Melanoma / metabolism
  • Melanoma / pathology*
  • Mice
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / drug effects
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Piperidines / pharmacology*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Pyridines / pharmacology*
  • Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism
  • Salicylates / pharmacology
  • Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Skin Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured

Substances

  • Actins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Piperidines
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Pyridines
  • Retinoblastoma Protein
  • Salicylates
  • farnesylthiosalicylic acid
  • Farnesol
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases
  • Farnesyltranstransferase
  • AKT1 protein, human
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • lonafarnib
  • Cisplatin