The purpose of this case-control study nested in the Agricultural Health Study was to assess risk factors for agricultural injury among a large group of Iowa farmers. A questionnaire sent to 6,999 farmers identified 431 cases who had a farm work-related injury requiring medical advice/treatment in the previous year and 473 controls who had no injury in the previous year. We assessed several potential risk factors for injury. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant associations between farm work-related injury and weekly farming work hours (> or = 50 hours/week) (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.23-2.21), the presence of large livestock (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.24-2.51), education beyond high school (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.21-2.12), regular medication use (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.04-1.96), wearing a hearing aid (OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.07-5.20), and younger age. These results confirm the importance of risk factors identified in previous analytic studies and suggest directions for future research in preventive intervention strategies to reduce farm work-related injuries.