Chronic leptin treatment markedly enhances the effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production unproportionally with respect to body weight loss and increased insulin sensitivity. In the present study the cross-talk between insulin and leptin was evaluated in rat liver. Upon stimulation of JAK2 tyrosine phosphorylation, leptin induced JAK2 co-immunoprecipitation with STAT3, STAT5b, IRS-1 and IRS-2. This phenomenon parallels the leptin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT5b, IRS-1 and IRS-2. Acutely injected insulin stimulated a mild increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3 and STAT5b. Leptin was less effective than insulin in stimulating IRS phosphorylation and their association with PI 3-kinase. Simultaneous treatment with both hormones yielded no change in maximal phosphorylation of STAT3, IRS-1, IRS-2 and Akt, but led to a marked increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT5b when compared with isolated administration of insulin or leptin. This indicates that there is a positive cross-talk between insulin and leptin signaling pathways at the level of JAK2 and STAT5b in rat liver.