In examining the performance of screening scales, a distinction should be made between principal and additional diagnoses. The Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ) is a brief, psychometrically strong self-report scale designed to screen for the most common Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed; DSM-IV) Axis I disorders encountered in outpatient mental health settings. In the present report, the authors compared the performance of the PDSQ in identifying principal and comorbid disorders. Seven hundred ninety-nine psychiatric outpatients completed the PDSQ and were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of the PDSQ subscales were similar for principal and additional diagnoses.