Myelin sheaths, wrapping axons, perform the following important functions: support, protection, feeding and isolation. Injury of myelin compact structure leads to an impairment and severe illness of the nerve system. Exact mechanisms underlying the myelination process and myelin sheaths damage have not established yet. Therefore search for substances, which provide regulatory and protective effects on the normal myelination as well as stimulating action on the remyelination after myelin damage, is of special interest. Recently it was shown that extract from mushroom Hericium erinaceus had activating action on the nerve tissue. So the aim of the present work was to study an influence of an extract from H. erinaceus on the cerebellar cells and the process of myelination in vitro. Obtained data revealed the normal growth of the nerve and glial cells with extract at cultivating. No pathologic or toxic action of the extract has been found. The cell ultrastructure was intact and similar to that observed in vivo. The process of myelination in the presence of the extract began earlier as compared to controls and was characterised by a higher rate. Thus, extract of H. erinaceus promoted normal development of cultivated cerebellar cells and demonstrated a regulatory effect on the process of myelin genesis process in vitro.