Gas discharge visualization evaluation of ultramolecular doses of homeopathic medicines under blinded, controlled conditions

J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Feb;9(1):25-38. doi: 10.1089/107555303321222928.


Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using a computerized biophysical method, gas discharge visualization (GDV), to differentiate ultramolecular doses of homeopathic remedies from solvent controls and from each other.

Design: Blinded, randomized assessment of four split samples each of 30c potencies of three homeopathic remedies from different kingdoms, for example, Natrum muriaticum (mineral), Pulsatilla (plant), and Lachesis (animal), dissolved in a 20% alcohol-water solvent versus two different control solutions (that is, solvent with untreated lactose/sucrose pellets and unsuccussed solvent alone).

Procedures: GDV measurements, involving application of a brief electrical impulse at four different voltage levels, were performed over 10 successive images on each of 10 drops from each bottle (total 400 images per test solution per voltage). The dependent variables were the quantified image characteristics of the liquid drops (form coefficient, area, and brightness) from the resultant burst of electron-ion emission and optical radiation in the visual and ultraviolet ranges.

Results: The procedure generated measurable images at the two highest voltage levels. At 17 kV, the remedies exhibited overall lower image parameter values compared with solvents (significant for Pulsatilla and Lachesis), as well as differences from solvents in fluctuations over repeated images (exposures to the same voltage). At 24 kV, other patterns emerged, with individual remedies showing higher or lower image parameters compared with other remedies and the solvent controls.

Conclusions: GDV technology may provide an electromagnetic probe into the properties of homeopathic remedies as distinguished from solvent controls. However, the present findings also highlight the need for additional research to evaluate factors that may affect reproducibility of results.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Gas* / methods
  • Electric Conductivity*
  • Electricity
  • Homeopathy* / methods
  • Homeopathy* / standards
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Pulsatilla / chemistry
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Research Design / standards
  • Sodium Chloride / chemistry
  • Solvents / chemistry
  • Viper Venoms / chemistry


  • Solvents
  • Viper Venoms
  • Sodium Chloride