Current hypotheses of the pathogenesis of many forms of pulmonary fibrosis suggest that (i) a stimulus results in repeated or prolonged episodes of lung injury, and (ii) genetic factors modulate the outcome of the injury. The commonly employed single-exposure bleomycin model results in only temporary fibrosis. Therefore, we evaluated whether repeated bleomycin exposures, in the setting of a genetic background more likely to develop a T helper 2 (Th2) response, would induce prolonged fibrosis. Lung fibrosis was induced by intratracheal bleomycin injection, either as a single exposure or as three consecutive exposures. We found that bleomycin induced a Th2-like environment in both Th1-biased C57BL/6J and Th2-biased DBA/2 mice. We also found histologic changes and collagen increases consistent with lung injury/fibrosis at early time points, but prolonged fibrosis only after multiple exposures in the Th2-biased DBA/2 mice. We also determined if impaired healing of bleomycin-induced injury would prolong fibrosis in the C57BL/6J mice. Endothelial nitric oxide (which protects endothelial cells from oxidant-induced injury) synthase knockout animals on a C57BL/6J background also had prolonged fibrosis, similar to DBA/2 mice, after multiple bleomycin exposures. This was specific to eNOS, as inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout animals cleared the fibrosis as effectively as wild-type C57BL/6J mice. This data indicate that healing of injury/fibrosis after bleomycin is complex and can be determined by a number of genetic and environmental factors.