Use of the mannitol pathway in fructose fermentation of Oenococcus oeni due to limiting redox regeneration capacity of the ethanol pathway

Arch Microbiol. 2003 Apr;179(4):227-33. doi: 10.1007/s00203-003-0519-6. Epub 2003 Feb 28.


The heterolactic bacterium Oenococcus oeni ferments fructose by a mixed heterolactic/mannitol fermentation. For heterolactic fermentation of fructose, the phosphoketolase pathway is used. The excess NAD(P)H from the phosphoketolase pathway is reoxidized by fructose (yielding mannitol). It is shown here that, under conditions of C-limitation or decreased growth rates, fructose can be fermented by heterolactic fermentation yielding nearly stoichiometric amounts of lactate, ethanol and CO(2). Quantitative evaluation of NAD(P)H-producing (phosphoketolase pathway) and -reoxidizing (ethanol, mannitol and erythritol pathways) reactions demonstrated that at high growth rates or in batch cultures the ethanol pathway does not have sufficient capacity for NAD(P)H reoxidation, requiring additional use of the mannitol pathway to maintain the growth rate. In addition, insufficient capacities to reoxidize NAD(P)H causes inhibition of growth, whereas increased NAD(P)H reoxidation by electron acceptors such as pyruvate increases the growth rate.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde-Lyases / metabolism
  • Carbon Dioxide / metabolism
  • Culture Media
  • Ethanol / metabolism*
  • Fermentation
  • Fructose / metabolism*
  • Gram-Positive Cocci / growth & development
  • Gram-Positive Cocci / metabolism*
  • Lactic Acid / metabolism
  • Leuconostoc / growth & development
  • Leuconostoc / metabolism
  • Mannitol / metabolism*
  • NADP / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • Pyruvic Acid
  • Substrate Specificity


  • Culture Media
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • Fructose
  • Lactic Acid
  • Ethanol
  • Mannitol
  • NADP
  • Pyruvic Acid
  • Aldehyde-Lyases
  • phosphoketolase