Vascularity is increased in the bone marrow of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels correlate with worse survival. We analyzed the significance of VEGF-receptor 1 (VEGF-R1) and VEGF-R2 levels in bone marrow samples from 170 CML patients (137 chronic, 24 accelerated, and 9 blastic phase). Median VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 levels were 4.66 and 2-fold, respectively, that in normal control samples. Receptor levels did not correlate with disease phase or other host and disease features examined. Chronic phase CML patients with increased VEGF-R2 levels had significantly inferior survival than patients without receptor up-regulation (P=0.009). Patients in accelerated/blastic phase CML with elevated VEGF-R2 expression had marginally worse survival (P=0.05). In contrast, high VEGF-R1 levels did not correlate with a specific CML phase, characteristic, or outcome. Our findings support VEGF-R2 over-expression as an independent prognostic indicator for shortened survival in patients with CML.