Intervening before the onset of Type 1 diabetes: baseline data from the European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT)

Diabetologia. 2003 Mar;46(3):339-46. doi: 10.1007/s00125-003-1033-8. Epub 2003 Feb 27.


Aims/hypothesis: To set up a clinical trial to establish whether nicotinamide can prevent or delay clinical onset of Type 1 diabetes.

Method: The European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial undertaken in 18 European countries, Canada and the USA. Entry criteria were a first-degree family history of Type 1 diabetes, age 3-40 years, confirmed islet cell antibody (ICA) levels greater than or equal to 20 JDF units, and a non-diabetic OGTT; the study group was further characterised by intravenous glucose tolerance testing, measurement of antibodies to GAD, IA-2 and insulin and HLA class II genotyping.

Results: ICA screening was carried out in approximately 30,000 first-degree relatives. A total of 1004 individuals fulfilled ICA criteria for eligibility, and 552 (288 male) were randomised to treatment. Of these, 331 were aged less than 20 years (87% siblings and 13% offspring of the proband with diabetes) and 221 were 20 years of age or more (76% parents, 21% siblings and 3% offspring). Oral glucose tolerance was normal in 500 and impaired in 52 (9.4%), and first phase insulin response in the IVGTT was below the 10(th) centile in 34%. Additional islet autoantibodies were identified in 354 trial entrants. Diabetes-associated HLA class II haplotypes were found in 84% of the younger age group and 80% of the older group. The protective haplotype HLA-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 was found in 10% overall.

Conclusions/interpretation: ENDIT has shown that a trial of an intervention designed to halt or delay progression to Type 1 diabetes can be carried out on a multinational collaborative basis, as and when potentially safe and effective forms of intervention become available. Primary screening with biochemically defined autoantibodies will substantially reduce the number of lower risk individuals to be included in future intervention trials

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Autoantibodies / analysis
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / prevention & control*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Europe
  • Female
  • Genes, MHC Class II / genetics
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / immunology
  • Haplotypes
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / immunology
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Niacinamide / therapeutic use*


  • Autoantibodies
  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • Insulin
  • Niacinamide