4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal: a product and mediator of oxidative stress

Prog Lipid Res. 2003 Jul;42(4):318-43. doi: 10.1016/s0163-7827(03)00014-6.


The onset of lipid peroxidation within cellular membranes is associated with changes in their physiochemical properties and with the impairment of enzymatic functions located in the membrane environment. There is increasing evidence that aldehydic molecules generated endogenously during the process of lipid peroidation are causally involved in most of the pathophysiological effects associated with oxidative stress in cells and tissues. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), among them, is believed to be largely responsible for cytopathological effects observed during oxidative stree in vivo and has achieved the status of one of the best recognized and most studied of the cytotoxic products of lipid peroxidation. In the present review, I provide a comprehensive summary of HNE, as the product and mediator or oxidative stress.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aldehydes / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Arteriosclerosis / metabolism
  • Cysteine Endopeptidases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry / methods
  • Lipid Peroxidation*
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Mammals / metabolism*
  • Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex


  • Aldehydes
  • Multienzyme Complexes
  • NF-kappa B
  • Cysteine Endopeptidases
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal