Active hexose correlated compound enhances resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in mice in the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003 Aug;95(2):491-6. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00259.2003. Epub 2003 Apr 11.


Previous studies have demonstrated that resistance to infection is decreased in Swiss Webster female mice maintained in the hindlimb-unloading model (Aviles H, Belay T, Fountain K, Vance M, and Sonnenfeld G. J Appl Physiol 95: 73-80, 2003; Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110: 262-268, 2002). This is a model of some of the aspects of spaceflight conditions, including lack of load bearing on hindlimbs and a fluid shift to the head. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms, has been shown to induce enhancement of immune responses, including enhanced natural killer activity. In the present study, AHCC was orally administered to mice to determine whether the treatment could decrease immunosuppression and mortality of mice maintained in the hindlimb-unloaded model and infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results of the present study showed that administration of AHCC by gavage for 1 wk (1 g/kg body wt) before suspension and throughout the 10-day suspension period yielded significant beneficial effects for the hindlimb-unloaded group, including 1). decreased mortality, 2). increased time to death, and 3). increased ability to clear bacteria. The results suggest that AHCC can decrease the deleterious effects of the hindlimb-unloading model on immunity and resistance to infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / biosynthesis
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Female
  • Hexoses / administration & dosage
  • Hexoses / pharmacology*
  • Hindlimb Suspension*
  • Immunoglobulin G / biosynthesis
  • Immunosuppression Therapy
  • Klebsiella Infections / immunology
  • Klebsiella Infections / microbiology
  • Klebsiella Infections / prevention & control*
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae* / immunology
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae* / isolation & purification
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Mice
  • Polysaccharides / administration & dosage
  • Polysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Space Flight*
  • Survival Analysis


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Hexoses
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Polysaccharides
  • Active Hexose Correlated Compound