Comparison of body composition and periodontal disease using nutritional assessment techniques: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

J Clin Periodontol. 2003 Apr;30(4):321-7. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2003.00353.x.


Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association of body composition (obesity) and periodontal disease using simple, inexpensive nutritional assessment techniques available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

Material and methods: Caucasian subjects, aged 18 years and above, participating in NHANES III, were used for this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, skinfold thickness (S), and bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements were performed and used in the calculation of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (visceral fat), log sum of S (subcutaneous fat), and fat-free mass (FFM). Data were analyzed using SPSS. One-way, factorial ANOVA, multivariate analyses, and regression curve analyses were performed. p<0.05 was used to reject the null hypothesis.

Results: Adjusting for age, gender, history of diabetes, current smoking, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and WHR, BMI, FFM, and in some instances S.

Conclusion: This study, indicating significant correlations between body composition and periodontal disease (with WHR being the most significant, followed by BMI, FFM, and S), showed similarities to those observed in other obesity-related health problems. This strengthened arguments that periodontal disease and certain obesity-related systemic illnesses are related, with abnormal fat metabolism possibly being an important factor.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / anatomy & histology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Body Composition / physiology*
  • Body Constitution
  • Body Height / physiology
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Electric Impedance
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nutrition Assessment*
  • Obesity / complications
  • Periodontal Diseases / classification
  • Periodontal Diseases / complications*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sex Factors
  • Skinfold Thickness