The development of fetal surgery has led to promising therapeutic options for a number of congenital malformations. However, preterm labor (PTL) and premature rupture of membranes continue to be ubiquitous risks for both mother and fetus. To reduce maternal morbidity and the risk of prematurity, minimal access surgical techniques were developed and are increasingly employed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), obstructive uropathy, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), and sacrococcygeal teratoma have already been successfully treated using minimal access fetal surgical procedures. Other life-threatening diseases as well as severely disabling but not life-threatening conditions are potentially amenable to treatment. The wider application of minimal access fetal surgery depends on a continued improvement in technology and a better understanding of complications associated with fetal intervention.