Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined treatment with 2% topical cyclosporine (CsA) and topical corticosteroid compared to treatment with topical corticosteroids only after pediatric keratoplasty.
Methods: Twenty-two grafts in 16 pediatric patients were evaluated retrospectively. The eyes were divided into a CsA group (9 eyes) and a control group (13 eyes) based on the postoperative treatment regimen. Information reviewed included patient age and sex, clinical diagnosis; preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure and lens status; previous, concurrent, and subsequent surgical procedures; operative and postoperative complications; number of graft rejections, timing of suture removal, and length of follow-up. The clinical outcome of penetrating keratoplasty (PK) was evaluated by the rate of rejection-free graft survival and graft survival evaluation by the Kaplan-Meier log-rank test.
Results: The rejection-free graft survival rate was 88.9% in the CsA group and 38.5% in the control group. This difference in rejection-free graft survival rate between the groups was statistically significant (P =.0465). The graft survival rate was 88.9% in the CsA group and 46.2% in the control group. The difference in the graft survival rate was not statistically significant between the groups (P =.6). No clinical signs of systemic or local toxicity were seen with the topical CsA treatment.
Conclusions: Two percent topical CsA is safe and effective in reducing the risk of allograft rejection in pediatric recipients.