Cardiovascular disease accounts for more than 50% of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) deaths. The reported cardiovascular death rates in patients receiving dialysis are substantially higher than in the general population. Cardiovascular mortality in ESRD is particularly high after acute myocardial infarction, but it is also elevated in ESRD patients with other forms of atherosclerotic vascular disease (eg, chronic coronary artery disease, strokes, transient ischemic attacks, and peripheral arterial disease). Left ventricular hypertrophy and dilation are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, as is congestive heart failure. One of the major reasons for such high cardiovascular mortality in ESRD is the large burden of cardiovascular disease present in patients with chronic artery disease before renal replacement therapy. These observations mandate not only aggressive diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease in patients with ESRD, but also active screening, diagnosis, and treatment in those with chronic kidney disease before renal replacement therapy.