Parent training of toddlers in day care in low-income urban communities

J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003 Apr;71(2):261-78. doi: 10.1037/0022-006x.71.2.261.


The authors tested a 12-week parent training program with parents (n = 208) and teachers (n = 77) of 2-3-year-olds in day care centers serving low-income families of color in Chicago. Eleven centers were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: (a) parent and teacher training (PT + TT), (b) parent training (PT), (c) teacher training (TT), and (d) waiting list control (C). After controlling for parent stress, PT and PT + TT parents reported higher self-efficacy and less coercive discipline and were observed to have more positive behaviors than C and TT parents. Among toddlers in high-risk behavior problem groups, toddlers in the experimental conditions showed greater improvement than controls. Most effects were retained 1 year later. Benefits were greatest when parents directly received training.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child Day Care Centers*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Parents / education*
  • Play and Playthings
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Teaching / methods*
  • Urban Population*