This review addresses the non-thrombogenic characteristics of copolymers based on 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), originally developed by Nakabayashi and colleagues. The hypothesis underlying these developments was that such materials would adsorb phospholipids from blood, yielding surfaces with good natural blood compatibility. Methacrylates were found to have excellent properties for this copolymerisation. The characteristics of the MPC copolymers relevant to the improved blood compatibility were minimisation of protein adsorption through an increase in the amount of free water in the MPC hydrogels, which prevents protein conformational change and increased protein stability in solution. Non-thrombogenicity has been evaluated by in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo procedures. Non-thrombogenic dialysis membranes and a durable glucose biosensor have been developed using this MPC copolymer.