Proprioceptive ability was prospectively evaluated in patients with recurrent traumatic anterior instability who subsequently underwent anterior shoulder repair. Thirty consecutive patients were evaluated for passive position sense and detection of motion with the shoulder in flexion, abduction, and external rotation 1 week before surgery. They were then retested at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. A significant deficit in proprioception was found when the unstable side was compared with the uninvolved side before surgery. Six months after surgical repair, position sense showed an improvement of approximately 50% but was still found to be significantly different on the involved side; detection of motion was no longer significantly different from the uninvolved shoulder. One year after open anterior shoulder repair, both position sense and detection of motion were equivalent to those of the uninvolved shoulder.