Novel murine mammary epithelial cell lines that form osteolytic bone metastases: effect of strain background on tumor homing

Clin Exp Metastasis. 2003;20(2):111-20. doi: 10.1023/a:1022675031185.


We have developed a series of novel mammary epithelial cell lines from tumors arising in strain 129 mice, with the ultimate goal of evaluating the role of host factors in the development of bone metastases. Mammary tumors were induced in mice with subcutaneously implanted medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) pellets followed by administration of DMBA by oral gavage. Mammary tumor development was efficient in the 129 strain and was independent of osteopontin (OPN) expression. Epithelial cell lines were isolated from these tumors; surprisingly, these cells did not form tumors upon inoculation into the mammary fat pad of syngeneic mice, even when MPA was present. One OPN-deficient cell line was selected for further study; full transformation of these cells required expression of both polyoma middle T and activated ras. These doubly transfected cells, 1029 GP+Er3, grew in soft agar, and formed hormone-independent tumors efficiently in the mammary fat pad that spontaneously metastasized to several soft tissue sites but not to the bone. Derivatives of these cells were isolated from tumors arising in the fat pad and from a lung metastasis (r3T and r3L, respectively): these cells formed tumors more rapidly in the fat pad than the parental GP+Er3 cells. Upon left ventricle injection, the r3T and r3L cells formed osteolytic bone metastases in 129 mice, with few metastases seen in other organs. These tumors filled the marrow cavity, and caused extensive destruction of both cortical and trabecular bone. Intriguingly, in an alternative syngeneic host, (129xC57B1/6) F1, osteolytic bone metastases were not seen on x-ray; instead extensive liver metastasis was present in these mice, indicating that genetic factors in these two strains regulate tumor cell homing and distribution during metastasis. These cell lines provide an important new tool in the study of bone metastasis, particularly in elucidating the role of host factors in the development of these lesions, as the 129 mouse strain is frequently used for genetic manipulations in the mouse.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / toxicity
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics
  • Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / immunology
  • Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / metabolism
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / toxicity
  • Bone Neoplasms / pathology
  • Bone Neoplasms / secondary*
  • Carcinogens / toxicity
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism
  • Epithelial Cells / metabolism
  • Epithelial Cells / pathology*
  • Female
  • Genes, ras / physiology
  • Heart Ventricles
  • Humans
  • Keratins / metabolism
  • Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology
  • Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / secondary
  • Male
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / chemically induced
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology*
  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / toxicity
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology
  • Osteolysis
  • Osteopontin
  • Retroviridae
  • Sialoglycoproteins / deficiency
  • Sialoglycoproteins / genetics
  • Sialoglycoproteins / metabolism
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Carcinogens
  • SPP1 protein, human
  • Sialoglycoproteins
  • Spp1 protein, mouse
  • Osteopontin
  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • Keratins
  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate